Saturday, July 17, 2021

What is artificial intelligence and how does it work?

 What exactly is artificial intelligence, how and why is it used?

What is artificial Intelligence

 Artificial Intelligence is an idea that has been around for a long time. In fact, John McCarthy coined the phrase Artificial Intelligence in 1950, and Alan Turing wrote about it in a paper titled "Computing Machinery and Intelligence" the same year.

Since then, the field of computer science has progressed significantly.

AI, according to professor Patrick H. Winston of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is "constraint-enabled algorithms exposed by representations that support models driven by loops combining thought, perception, and action."

Others, such as DataRobot CEO Jeremy Achin, define Artificial Intelligence as a computational system that allows machines to execute tasks that would otherwise need human intelligence.

Margaret Rose, the editor-in-chief of Tech Target's technology encyclopedia, defines it as a system that simulates several human functions including learning, reasoning, and self-correction.

As can be seen, the three definitions of AI all apply to thinking machines or computer systems. They imitate human intelligence in order to execute tasks that only humans are capable of.

Other publications, on the other hand, define AI as a computer system that solves complicated issues beyond the human brain's capabilities.

In this sense, AI uses the computing capacity of computers to tackle complicated problems that the human mind is incapable of solving.

"Since everything we love about our civilization is a product of our intellect, magnifying our human intelligence with artificial intelligence has the potential to help civilization emerge as never before," says Max Tegmark, head of the Future Life Institute.

In response to this problem, Google Deep Mind and Oxford University collaborated on research that found AI is capable of interpreting damaged and illegible Ancient Greek writings. While historians and epigraphers have a 57.3 percent error rate, the algorithm in charge of this achievement has a 30.1 percent error rate.

These examples demonstrate how AI can tackle complicated issues in ways that humans cannot. But, exactly, how does AI work?

Artificial intelligence is a group of technologies aimed at simulating human intelligence's unique qualities and capabilities.

The most recent technology advancements cause us to consider where the world is headed. In truth, the technical-scientific field has been bringing about a major worldwide change for some time now: artificial intelligence (AI).

Artificial intelligence is the moniker given to a succession of technologies with qualities or powers that were previously limited to the human intellect, notwithstanding the lack of a precise description. When a computer duplicates cognitive functions that humans identify with other human minds, such as learning or problem solving, the phrase "cognitive mimicry" is used.

What is artificial intelligence and how does it work? 

Origins and history

At the Dartmouth conference in 1956, scientists Allen Newell, Herbert Simon, Marvin Minsky, Arthur Samuel, and John McCarthy met for the first time, laying the groundwork for the discipline of artificial intelligence. It would be simple to give machines the ability to think, they agreed.

Returning to the Greeks, the fundamental notions regarding artificial intelligence take us to Aristotle, who was the first to describe a system of rules outlining a part of the mind's workings in order to arrive at reasoned conclusions. Ctesibius of Alexandria, a few centuries later, built the first rationally self-controlling machine, but without reasoning.

Artificial intelligence reached its pinnacle in the late 1950s and early 1960s, when machines outperformed many humans at checkers, 'learned' English, and solved algebraic and logical problems.

Later, between 1968 and 1970, Terry Winograd, a professor of computer science at Stanford University, built the SHRDLU system, which allowed people to question and issue commands to a robot that walked around in a block environment.

The multinational IBM produced a supercomputer called Watson in the new century, after significant technological improvements, and it won the Jeopardy game (a television knowledge challenge) three times over two of its top champions.

Artificial intelligence has changed not only the economic sector, but also the social sphere, with applications ranging from early cancer detection to Amazon deforestation prevention.

Artificial intelligence classifications

In their book 'Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach,' Stuart Russell and Peter Norvig distinguish four types of artificial intelligence.

- Human-like systems: these are systems that attempt to mimic human thinking processes such as decision-making, problem-solving, and learning.

- Human-like systems: these attempt to act like humans. In other words, they imitate human conduct. Robotics is an example of this system.

- Rational-thinking systems: they strive to emulate human beings' rational, logical thinking; for example, the study of the computations that allow us to perceive, reason, and act.

- Rational systems: this system seeks to imitate human behavior in a rational manner. It has to do with intelligent artifact behaviors.

What is the difference between traditional artificial intelligence and computational artificial intelligence?

Symbolic-deductive AI is a type of artificial intelligence that is based on the formal and statistical analysis of human behavior in the face of various problems. It aids decision-making while tackling specific tangible challenges and necessitates high performance.

Allows for complicated decision-making and the proposal of a solution to a problem. This intelligence also has autonomy and the ability to self-regulate and control itself in order to improve.

Meanwhile, subsymbolic-inductive AI, often known as computational artificial intelligence, entails development or interactive learning. This knowledge is based on empirical evidence.

Algorithms are used to develop artificial intelligence. They are mathematical learning skills, and the data required to train these algorithms is observable data that is publicly available or data supplied by some companies, the same that repeats the learning process.

What is the purpose of artificial intelligence? Applications in the field and in the real world

Artificial intelligence is employed in a variety of industries, including robots, language comprehension and translation, word learning, and so forth.

The following are the primary and most notable sectors where we may discover a well-known evolution of artificial intelligence:

- Information Technology

- Funding

- Hospitals and pharmaceuticals

- Heavy manufacturing

- Customer support

- Access to transportation

- Playing games

What are the potential dangers of artificial intelligence?

While artificial intelligence has numerous advantages in various areas of life, some scientists feel it may introduce new problems.

The financial market is the most vulnerable, as computers' ability to handle massive amounts of data can give those in charge of it influence and allow them to dominate banking on a global scale.

Another issue is the lack of worldwide regulation.

The loss of jobs, on the other hand, is likely the most concerning risk and one that might cause a slew of issues. According to a research published in China in 2015, artificial intelligence will make nearly half of all present vocations obsolete by 2025 if technology continues to disrupt businesses at its current rate.

As a result, scientists have begun to conceptualize the boundaries of artificial intelligence in each of its applications and how they should be handled to ensure that human safety is preserved. 

Curated By Gerluxe

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